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مجموعه مقالات لاتین در زمینه مهندسی ترافیک رفتن به صفحه : قبلی  1, 2, 3 ... 11, 12, 13, 14  بعدی
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پست تاریخ: چهار‌شنبه 27 فروردین 1393 - 00:09    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

A review of issues in transit economics
Ken Gwilliam
*
Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, 36–40 University Road, Roam G02, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
article info
Article history:
Available online 1 March 2009
Keywords:
Transit
Public transport
Policy objectives
Costs
Demand
Regulatory reform
abstract
This paper reviews the development of thought on the major issues in transit economics over the last 50
years, in developed and developing countries. Some issues – the analysis of cost and demand parameters–
are perennial, with development mostly in the mathematical sophistication of analytical techniques
employed, while others – such as issues of ownership and competitive form – reflect wider trends in
economic thinking. Some issues – such as the relationship between transit and development – are
universal, while others – such as the role of small vehicles and the informal sector – impact mostly on
developing countries. One conclusion stands out. Transit is critical to the achievement of a wide range of
social, economic and environmental objectives and, therefore, needs appropriate institutions to ensure its
integration with the strategic management of the rest of urban development policy

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پست تاریخ: چهار‌شنبه 27 فروردین 1393 - 00:13    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

U.S. public transit earnings, employment and privatization
article info
Article history:
Available online 1 March 2009
Keywords:
Public Transit
Privatization
Labor earnings
Labor employment
Scale economies

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پست تاریخ: چهار‌شنبه 27 فروردین 1393 - 00:15    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Part I: Externalities and economic policies in road transport
q
Georgina Santos
a
,
*
, Hannah Behrendt
b
, Laura Maconi
c
, Tara Shirvani
c
, Alexander Teytelboym
b
a
Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
b
Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
c
Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
article info
Article history:
Received 11 November 2009
Accepted 17 November 2009
Keywords:
Road transport externalities
Corrective charges
Road taxes
Fuel duty differentials
Congestion charging
Road Pricing
High Occupancy Toll Lanes
Toll highways
Pay-as-you-drive insurance
Carbon tax
Emission taxes
Vehicle excise duty
Registration taxes
Equity impacts
Cap-and-trade
Tradable permits
Scrappage schemes
Subsidies
abstract
Road transport imposes negative externalities on society. These externalities include environmental and
road damage, accidents, congestion, and oil dependence. The cost of these externalities to society is in
general not reflected in the current market prices in the road transport sector.
An efficient mobility model for the future must take into account the true costs of transport and its
regulatory framework will need to create incentives for people to make sustainable transport choices.
This paper discusses the use of economic instruments to correct road transport externalities, but gives
relatively more weight to the problem of carbon emissions from road transport, as this is particularly
challenging, given its global and long-term nature.
Economics offers two types of instruments for addressing the problem of transport externalities:
command-and-control and incentive-based policies.
Command-and-control policies are government regulations which force consumers and producers to
change their behaviour. They are the most widely used policy instruments. Examples include vehicle
emission and fuel standards in the US as well as driving or parking restrictions in Singapore. The
implementation cost of these instruments to the government is small. Although from an economic
perspective these policies often fail to achieve an efficient market outcome, the presence of political
constraints often make them the preferred option, in terms of feasibility and effectiveness.
Economic theory shows how policies, which affect consumption and production incentives, can be
used to achieve the optimal outcome in the presence of externalities. Incentive-based policies function
within a new or an altered market. We first examine incentive-based policies, which cap the aggregate
amount of the externality, such as carbon emissions, by allocating permits or rights to the emitters. The
emitters are then free to trade their permits amongst them. The permit allocation mechanism is
important–although market efficiency would be satisfied by an auction, political influences usually
favour a proportional allocation based on historic emissions. We discuss EU ETS as an example of a cap-
and-trade system, however, no such policy for CO
2
emissions in road transport has been implemented
anywhere in the world to date.
Fiscal instruments are, like command-and-control, widely used in road transport, because they are
relatively cheap and simple to implement. They include the use of taxes and charges in order to bridge
the gap between private and the social costs and, in principle, can lead to an efficient market solution.
Registration, ownership, fuel, emissions, usage taxes, and parking and congestion charges have been
implemented in many countries around the world. On the other side of the spectrum, subsidies can be
given to those scrapping old cars and buying fuel-efficient vehicles. Some cities, such as London, have
implemented congestion charges and many states in the United States have introduced high occupancy
lanes. Other interesting possibilities include pay-as-you-drive insurance and other usage charges.
However, the size and scope of taxes and subsidies are determined by governments, and because of their
imperfect knowledge of the market the outcome is still likely to be inefficient.
Governments have many effective economic instruments to create a sustainable road transport model.
These instruments can be used separately or together, but their implementation will be necessary in the
nearest future.

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پست تاریخ: یکشنبه 4 خرداد 1393 - 01:16    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

The broader economic consequences of transport infrastructure investments
T.R. Lakshmanan *
Boston University, Department of Geography and Environment, 675, Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215, United States
a r t i c l e i n f o
Keywords:
Transport infrastructure
Broader economic effects
General equilibrium effect
Transport
a b s t r a c t
A major question in Economic Geography relates to the scale and nature of transport infrastructure’s contribution
to the broader economy. While Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is the most widely used of the three
potential approaches, the recent interest in the wider economic benefits of transport infrastructure has
spawned a variety of macroeconomic models. However, the estimates of magnitudes and direction of
economic impacts of infrastructure by various macroeconomic models are sharply different, and these
models shed little light on causal mechanisms linking transport and the economy. This paper has two
aims: first, to highlight the wider economic benefits of transport infrastructure from the observed role
of railroads and waterways in economic development, and two by reviewing recent theoretical developments
to identify the multiple causal mechanisms which link transport and economic growth such as :
market expansion, gains from trade, technological shifts, processes of spatial agglomeration and processes
of innovation and commercialization of new knowledge in urban clusters (made possible by transport
improvements). Hence the need for developing general equilibrium analyses of transport-economy
linkages.

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پست تاریخ: چهار‌شنبه 28 خرداد 1393 - 02:06    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Health Impacts of Urban Development
and Transportation Systems

Amir Samimi1 and Abolfazl Kouros Mohammadian2
Abstract: Urban transportation planning and land-use policies play a pivotal role in every society and are the subjects of interest in many
academic fields. Creating a tool that measures the benefits and costs associated with the built environment, which includes the surrounding
land-use and transportation system, would allow decision makers to choose the best option available to them when deciding on those
important issues. In addition to travel time, congestion, safety, energy, and environment, public health is an important subject that can be
affected by a transportation system. The primary objective of this study is to develop models for different health-related variables
including general health, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, asthma, and heart attack. This is to investigate the role of
transportation, land-use, and the built environment variables along with demographic and socioeconomic factors on people’s health. The
results of the analysis showed that increasing the transit use and decreasing the autouse have a significant positive impact on all the health
variables except for asthma. It was found that every percent decrease in autouse would reduce the chance of obesity by 0.4%, high blood
pressure by 0.3%, high blood cholesterol by 1.3%, and heart attack by 1%. In addition to the transit-oriented development, making the
environment more pedestrian friendly could motivate people to be more physically active in their daily routines and have a healthier
lifestyle.
DOI: 10.1061/ASCEUP.1943-5444.0000020
CE Database subject headings: Transportation systems; Urban development; Public health.
Author keywords: Health; Built environment; Urbanization; Transportation systems.

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پست تاریخ: سه‌شنبه 25 آذر 1393 - 23:43    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

A simulated annealing approach to solve the network design of one-way streets: case of Shiraz network
H. Poorzahedy, D. M. Shirazi
Institute for Transportation Studies and Research, Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Institute for Transportation Studies Research, Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology and
This study is devoted to the formulation of the network design problem of one-way streets and the application of simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to solve this problem for a large real network. It discusses some points of views on one-way street networks, the objective function used for design, the way in which design constraints may be considered, and the traffic problems concerning one-way streets. The results of applying the method to a real network are compared with the respective results of another heuristic approach of alternative one-way network generation, to test the goodness of SA algorithm. The SA solution to the problem became superior to any other solution at hand. Moreover, the question of the necessity of using the true values of the parameters of volume-delay functions, definition of “projects” (street segments), as well as the sufficiency of morning peak demand for design, are dealt with. Suggestions for further research end the discussion.
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 18 اردیبهشت 1394 - 21:15    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

ITS Solutions and Accident Risks: Prospective and Limitations
Transport Reviews, 2008 , Pages 549-572
Abstract:This article investigates the prospective and limitations in the application of potential intelligent transport system (ITS) functions to reduce accident risks, using a cause‐treatment relationship. The main causes of road accidents are described and appropriate ITS solutions (including advanced driver assistance systems and advanced traveller information systems) are presented as countermeasures. Anticipated impacts are discussed and indicate that several ITS have the potential of improving road safety and addressing specific accident causes. However, attention is required on particular aspects of their implementation as they may trigger adverse effects by imposing behavioural adaptation risks, and overestimation and over‐reliance on system capabilities. Further, user acceptability and strategic implementation issues are paramount to the successful introduction of these systems.

_________________
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 18 اردیبهشت 1394 - 21:18    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Intelligent transport systems in commercial fleet management: a study of short term economic benefits
Transportation Planning and Technology, 2001 , Pages 155-170
Abstract:Interest in the effects on businesses that have implemented Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies has been growing but systematically collected evidence of the advantages inherent in these technologies at a micro‐level is sparse. This study measures the effects of an ITS technology shortly after being developed and implemented by a courier company. The focus is on its labor augmenting potential. It details the effectiveness of the technology and the software development process. The case study concerns NOVA Group, a diversified transportation company and developer of dispatching software called Dispatch Tools. The effectiveness of the software is considered in terms of productivity of drivers as measured by the number of deliveries per driver‐hour. Data were collected for the same three‐month periods in 1996 before implementation and in 1997 after implementation. A panel of drivers and dispatchers participated. The change in productivity of these drivers after implementation of the dispatching software averaged 24%. An ancillary effect that was not anticipated was a decrease in stress on the dispatchers and improved communications between dispatchers and office personnel.

_________________
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عضو شده در: 7 مهر 1385
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تشکر: 3351
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امتیاز: 210699
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 18 اردیبهشت 1394 - 21:22    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Identification of new added value services on intelligent transportation systems
Behaviour & Information Technology, 2013 , Pages 307-320
Abstract:The evolution of electronics and the growing capabilities of in-vehicle and public infrastructure equipment make feasible the development of new value-added services in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). However, initiatives in this sense frequently failed due to the lack of agreement or coordination among service providers, public authorities and final users. This article proposes a scientific method based on concept mapping techniques to extract these value-added services. The main benefit of the proposed methodology is its ability to take into account the different points of view of the main actors involved in the transportation field. Obtained results will provide the general guidelines for future ITS services.

_________________
مرجع کاربردی طراحی سازه های فولادی با نرم افزار ETABS 2013 و SAFE ورژن 12 : http://goo.gl/zkqFfH

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امتیاز: 210699
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 18 اردیبهشت 1394 - 22:38    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Intelligent transport systems and effects on road
traffic accidents: state of the art

T. Vaa, M. Penttinen and I. Spyropoulou
Abstract: The results from several reviews have been presented and the aspects of road safety
associated with intelligent transport systems (ITS) applications have been addressed. The
attempt is to make a state-of-the-art regarding effects on accidents by categorising systems according
to levels of evaluations methods that have been applied. These categories are effects on behaviour,
effects on accidents by proxy/surrogate methods, accident studies from real traffic, effects on
accident types and finally by meta-analysis where weighted estimates of effects on accidents can be
calculated. Thirty-three IT systems including driver assistance systems/advanced driver assistance
systems, in-vehicle information systems, in-vehicle data-collection systems and road telematics
have been listed. Effects based on meta-analysis are estimated for 11 systems, and single accident
studies are found for an additional 2 systems. For the remaining 20 systems, no studies from real
road traffic have been identified. Effects on accidents of antilocking brake systems and electronic
stability control (ESC) are presented in more detail according to their effects on certain accident
types. ESC appears to be very efficient in reducing the number of accidents. Behavioural adaptations
to ITS are considered and discussed, especially in terms of compensation mechanisms.
Four hypotheses regarding prediction of effects on accidents are stated according to whether
systems increase or decrease ‘windows of opportunities’ by calling upon a driver behaviour
model where emotions play a central role.

_________________
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