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دانلود مقالات انگلیسی گرایش سازه رفتن به صفحه : قبلی  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9  بعدی
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 9 مرداد 1394 - 12:15    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL PERFORMANCE UNDER CYCLIC LOADING
Discussion by C. James Montgomery,5
Member, ASCE, and Manoj Medhekar6
The authors are to be complimented for a comprehensive
presentation on the experimental testing and analytical behavior
of steel plate walls subjected to lateral loads. The plate
wall system is an attractive alternative for resisting lateral wind
and seismic loads in buildings.
The authors conclude that plate walls exhibit good displacement
ductility capacity and stable hysteretic behavior under
cyclic loadings. They indicate that current code provisions
do not adequately address the potential for the significant
‘‘pull-in’’ of the columns of plate walls under load and the
influence of panel width-to-height aspect ratio on wall performance.
When the columns of a plate wall have a relatively low
flexural rigidity, they bend inwards (Fig. 6). This reduces the
magnitude of the tension field stress near midheight of the
story and increases the stress near the horizontal beams at the
top and bottom of the panel. The authors correctly point out
that excessive inward bending of the columns adversely affects
the performance of a plate wall.

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پست تاریخ: جمعه 9 مرداد 1394 - 16:28    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

BUCKLING BEHAVIOR IMPROVEMENT OF STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL SYSTEMS
SAEID SABOURI-GHOMI,1 MEHDI H. K. KHARRAZI,2* SALAH-E-DEEN MAM-AZIZI1 AND RAMIN
ASAD SAJADI1
1 K. N. Toosi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Sea-Engineering Inc., Houston, Texas, USA
SUMMARY
To improve buckling stability and to prevent early elastic buckling of infill plates, vertical and horizontal plate
stiffeners are designed for steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Furthermore, effective design of stiffeners for
SPSW systems results in improved structural behavior, such as increase of stiffness, capacity and energy absorption.
In this paper, the effect of stiffeners is studied on SPSW structural behavior and consequently a rational
method is proposed to determine the minimum required moment of inertia for stiffeners resulting in local buckling
mode of the infill plate. The proposed requirement is then compared to results obtained from tests previously
conducted, as well as those gained from finite element (FE) analyses performed for this study. Copyright © 2007
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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پست تاریخ: جمعه 9 مرداد 1394 - 16:38    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Behavior of Steel Plate Shear Wall Connected to Frame Beams Only
Lanhui Guo1*, Qin Rong1, Xinbo Ma2, and Sumei Zhang1
1School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China
2Center of Science and Technology of Construction Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, China
Abstract
This paper presents the study of steel plate shear walls which are connected to frame beams only. As the shear walls are not
connected to frame columns, the premature failure overall buckling or local buckling of frame columns can be prevented. In
fact, most of both structural design engineers and architects prefer this kind of steel plate shear walls because the dimension
of their opening space is relatively flexible by using several steel plates with small span-to-height ratio placed parallel to each
other. In this paper, two steel plate shear walls were fabricated and tested. The influence of stiffeners on the hysteretic behavior
of this kind of member was studied. The experimental results showed that this kind of specimen had good ductility and energy
dissipation capacity. The energy dissipation capacity of specimen with stiffeners was larger than that of the specimens without
stiffeners. Meanwhile, the finite element method was applied to analyze the behavior of steel plate shear walls, whose results
were validated by comparing with the corresponding experimental results. Analytical results showed that the free edges
deformed with evident out-of-plane deformation and should be constrained by stiffeners to meet the design requirements. The
energy dissipation capacity is much better for steel plate shear walls with lower height-to-thickness ratio and larger span-toheight
ratio. At last, the skeleton curve of steel plate shear wall was proposed for calculating the elastic rigidity and loadcarrying
capacity.
Keywords: steel plate shear wall (SPSW), connected to frame beams, ductility, height-to-thickness ratio, span-to-height ratio
1. Introduction
Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) become popular in
steel building structures due to their high lateral strength
and stiffness. In the early application of SPSWs, to
prevent shear buckling, the wall was stiffened. However,
stiffener welding can be costly and time-consuming in
steel wall fabrication. In recent years, experimental results
indicated that thin-walled steel plates, without stiffeners,
perform well in strength and ductility even after the shear
buckling occurs. In this context, un-stiffened SPSWs
become increasingly popular in the United States and
Canada for efficiency and economical purpose. They
allow shear buckling and the development of diagonal
tension strip occur in these walls which resist the lateral
loads by means of the diagonal tension strip action.
SPSW is connected to boundary columns and beams
either by bolts or welds. The main role of these connections
is to transfer shear and tension forces. For SPSWs
connected to both frame columns and frame beams, the
columns of stiffer system could carry a proportionally
larger share of storey shears, which could lead to early
failure of column. Xue and Lu (1994) conducted analytical
studies on four twelve-storey three-bay system combined
with SPSWs. Their results showed that the premature
failure of columns can be prevented if shear walls were
not connected to frame columns. Thus, the SPSW
connected to frame beams only is proposed, in which the
steel plate is connected to frame beams by pretensioned
high-strength bolts or welds (see Fig. 1). In addition, if
this kind of SPSW is fabricated with relatively small
span-to-height ratio and is placed parallel to each other in
a bay, opening space can be conveniently provided.
Therefore, the structural stiffness and load-carrying
capacity can be adjusted by changing the size or the
number of shear walls, which is welcomed by both
structural design engineers and architects.
Since 1980’s, un-stiffened steel plate shear walls began
to be used in buildings in the United States and Canada.
Utilization of the post-buckling strength of a panel in
Note.-Discussion open until May 1, 2012. This manuscript for this
paper was submitted for review and possible publication on December
22, 2010; approved on December 15, 2011.
© KSSC and Springer 2011
*Corresponding

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پست تاریخ: جمعه 9 مرداد 1394 - 16:49    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

A numerical study on response modification, overstrength, and displacement amplification factors for steel plate
shear wall systems
Can Ozan Kurban and Cem Topkaya∗,†
Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey
SUMMARY
Design recommendations for steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems have recently been introduced into
seismic provisions for steel buildings. Response modification (R), overstrength (o), and displacement
amplification (Cd) factors for SPSW systems presented in design codes were based on professional
experience and judgment. A numerical study has been undertaken to evaluate these factors for SPSW
systems. Forty-four unstiffened SPSW possessing different geometrical characteristics were designed based
on the recommendations given in the AISC Seismic Provisions. Bay width, number of stories, story mass,
and steel plate thickness were considered as the prime variables that influence the response. Twenty records
were selected to include the variability in ground motion characteristics. In order to provide a detailed
analysis of the post-buckling response, three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted for the
44 structures subjected to the selected suite of earthquake records. For each structure and earthquake
record, two analyses were conducted in which the first includes geometrical nonlinearities and the other
includes both geometrical and material nonlinearities, resulting in a total of 1760 time history analyses.
In this paper, the details of the design and analysis methodology are given. Based on the analysis results,
response modification (R), overstrength (o), and displacement amplification (Cd) factors for SPSW
systems are evaluated. Copyright q 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 6 July 2007; Revised 7 May 2008; Accepted 11 September 2008
KEY WORDS: steel plate shear wall; finite element; response modification; overstrength; time history;
displacement amplification

_________________
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امتیاز: 210699
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پست تاریخ: جمعه 9 مرداد 1394 - 17:02    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

ANALYSIS OF STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS USING EXPLICIT FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
M. R. Behbahanifard1, G. Y. Grondin2, and A. E. Elwi2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7, Canada
SUMMARY
The finite element analysis of unstiffened steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) has been implemented to date
with only limited success. Because of local instabilities and snap-through buckling of infill plates,
commonly used solution techniques fail to converge to the equilibrium path as cyclic buckling takes place
in the plate. Lack of convergence is a major problem in finite element analysis of these systems especially
when geometric nonlinearities are included in the model [1, 2].
A finite element model based on explicit dynamic formulation was recently developed for the analysis of
unstiffened SPSWs. Shell elements were used to model all components of the shear wall. Material and
geometric nonlinearities, and initial imperfections in the infill plates were included in the model. A
kinematic hardening material model was implemented in the analysis in order to simulate the Bauschinger
effect in the cyclic analysis of the system. A special loading procedure was developed to implement a
displacement control analysis. Quasi-static condition was simulated by controlling the kinetic energy of
the system.
This paper presents the procedure adopted to analyze SPSWs under monotonic and cyclic loading. It
validates the finite element model by comparing the predicted behaviour with the results of a large-scale
three-storey SPSW test.
http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/13_2420.pdf

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امتیاز: 210699
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پست تاریخ: یکشنبه 11 مرداد 1394 - 00:59    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

A numerical study on response modification, overstrength, and displacement amplification factors for steel plate
shear wall systems
Can Ozan Kurban and Cem Topkaya∗,†
Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey
SUMMARY
Design recommendations for steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems have recently been introduced into
seismic provisions for steel buildings. Response modification (R), overstrength (o), and displacement
amplification (Cd) factors for SPSW systems presented in design codes were based on professional
experience and judgment. A numerical study has been undertaken to evaluate these factors for SPSW
systems. Forty-four unstiffened SPSW possessing different geometrical characteristics were designed based
on the recommendations given in the AISC Seismic Provisions. Bay width, number of stories, story mass,
and steel plate thickness were considered as the prime variables that influence the response. Twenty records
were selected to include the variability in ground motion characteristics. In order to provide a detailed
analysis of the post-buckling response, three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted for the
44 structures subjected to the selected suite of earthquake records. For each structure and earthquake
record, two analyses were conducted in which the first includes geometrical nonlinearities and the other
includes both geometrical and material nonlinearities, resulting in a total of 1760 time history analyses.
In this paper, the details of the design and analysis methodology are given. Based on the analysis results,
response modification (R), overstrength (o), and displacement amplification (Cd) factors for SPSW
systems are evaluated. Copyright q 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 6 July 2007; Revised 7 May 2008; Accepted 11 September 2008
KEY WORDS: steel plate shear wall; finite element; response modification; overstrength; time history;
displacement amplification

_________________
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پست تاریخ: یکشنبه 11 مرداد 1394 - 01:06    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

The 3-D Computational Modeling of Shear-Dominated Ductile Failure in Steel
Franck J. Vernerey, Cahal McVeigh, Wing Kam Liu, Brian Moran, Deepti Tewari, David M. Parks,
and Gregory B. Olson
This paper presents recent advances in
the computational analysis of the failure
mechanisms in high-strength steel. Computational
issues are described regarding
modeling of the geometry, distribution,
and material behavior of the dispersed
phases present in the microstructure of
steel. The investigation of the failure
mechanisms using computational cell
model methodology in two and three
dimensions is then presented with an
emphasis on microvoid-induced shear
failure occurring at the scale of submicrometer
grain-refi ning carbide precipitates.
The failure of a three-dimensional
particle cluster extracted from
tomographic analysis of an engineering
alloy is simulated. Finally the cell model
results are used to simulate the failure
of the material at the macro-scale.

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پست تاریخ: یکشنبه 11 مرداد 1394 - 01:12    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Ductility and Energy Dissipation Capacity of Shear-Dominated Steel Plate Walls
In-Rak Choi1 and Hong-Gun Park2
Abstract: An experimental study was performed to investigate the potential maximum ductility and energy dissipation capacity of steel
plate walls with thin infill plates. Three specimens of a three-story steel plate wall were tested. A concentrically braced frame CBF and
a moment-resisting frame MRF were also tested for comparison. To maximize the ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the steel
plate walls, ductile details were used. The test parameters were the aspect ratio of the infill plate and the shear strength of the column. The
steel plate walls exhibited much better ductility and energy dissipation capacity as compared to the CBF and MRF. This result indicates
that unlike conventional reinforced concrete walls and CBFs, shear-dominated steel plate walls with thin infill plates possess excellent
ductility capacity as well as high strength and stiffness. Based on the results of previous studies and the present study, the variations in the
ductility and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel plate walls according to the design parameters were investigated.
DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94452008134:91495
CE Database subject headings: Steel plates; Shear walls; Cyclic tests; Ductility; Energy; Parameters.

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پست تاریخ: سه‌شنبه 13 مرداد 1394 - 20:27    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Higher Mode Effects in the Nonlinear Static Analysis of a Collapsed Chimney
Authors:
Phillip L. Gould, Washington University, Department of Civil Engineering, 1 Brookings
Dr., Saint Louis, MO 63130, pgoul@seas.wustl.edu
Wei Huang, KPFF Consulting Engineers, 6080 Center Dr., Suite 300, Los Angeles, CA
90045, whuang@kpff-la.com
ABSTRACT
This study is focused on a 115 meter high reinforced concrete chimney located at the
Tüpras refinery, Turkey, which collapsed during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. The stack
was designed and constructed according to international standards and is representative
of similar structures at refineries throughout the world. This structure is of particular
interest because several similar chimneys at the site survived the shock with only
moderate damage. The particular distinction of this chimney appears to be an unusually
large rectangular opening, located about 1/3 of the height above the base, which appeared
to be the region of collapse initiation.
The main focus of the research is the dynamic response of the stack due to an
earthquake motion recorded at a nearby site. Results from a response spectrum analysis
of the Tüpras stack as well as from a basic nonlinear static pushover analysis using a
demand-collapse comparison have been published. These results provide a strong
indication of the collapse mechanism of the stack and are consistent with the postcollapse
remnants.
Since the available spectrum had a peak close to the second period of the stack, the
higher mode participation is of interest. In this paper, different methods for the
consideration of the higher mode effects are evaluated by comparison with a full
nonlinear dynamic analysis. Results are presented that include the effects of the higher
mode contributions on the nonlinear static collapse loading
http://iransaze.com/modules.php?name=Forums&file=download&id=68694
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پست تاریخ: پنج‌شنبه 22 مرداد 1394 - 09:36    عنوان:   پاسخگویی به این موضوع بهمراه نقل قول

Heavy Steel-Aggregate Concrete

Author(s): E. I. Fisenheiser and B. A. Wasil

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 52

Issue: 9

Appears on pages(s): 73-82

Keywords: no keywords

Date: 9/1/1955

Abstract:
An experimental study of various mix proportions for heavy cnncrete is described and a proportioning procedure for concrete of given strength and density is explained. The primary object of the investigation was to determine a procedure for the improved proportioning of mixes using steel punchings as coarse aggregate with steel shot of varying size as fine aggregate. First, the individual ingredients were investigated, then, the optimum mixture. Various heavy concrete mixes were made and strength tested at 7, 14, and 21 days. Tests results are interesting in that they indicate a possible conclusion that the strength of this concrete is proportional to its density the water-cement ratio being only one of the factors involved in determining the density. This suggests the generalization that, in the plastic range, the strength of any concrete of given ingredients is proportional to its density.

DOI: 10.14359/11587
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